Transportation Engineering

 After the completion of the course, students will be able to plan, survey and design the road projects. They will attain the knowledge of road development and its planning. They will gain the knowledge based on the Nepalese context.

  1. Introduction to Transportation Planning and engineering [4 hours]
    1. Introduction
    2. Modes of Transportation
    3. Comparison between Various Modes of Transportation
    4. Historical Development of Roads and Road Construction in Nepal
    5. Transport Planning including Objective of Road Planning, National Network Planning, Urban Road Network Planning and Ring Roads
    6. Classification of Roads (NRS)
  1. Highway Alignment and Engineering Survey [4 hours]
    1. Highway Alignment
      1. Introduction
      2. Requirements of Highway Alignment
      3. Factors Controlling Highway Alignment
    2. Engineering Survey and its Stages
      1. Structure of the route Location Process
      2. Physical Surveys: Map Study, Reconnaissance, Preliminary and Detailed Surveys
  1. Geometric Design of Highway [18 hours]
    1. Definition and Scope of Geometric Design
    2. Basic Design Controls and Criteria for Design
    3. Elements of cross-section
    4. Elements of Horizontal Alignments
      1. Definition and Types of Horizontal Curve
      2. Design of Horizontal Curves including Night Visibility Consideration
      3. Sight Distance: Stopping Sight Distance, Overtaking Sight Distance, Set-back from Obstructions
      4. Super elevation
      5. Extra widening
      6. Transition Curves: Definition and  types of Transition Curve, Design of Transition Curve  
    5. Elements of Vertical Alignment
      1. Definition and types of Gradient
      2. Momentum Grade
      3. Grade Compensation
      4. Definition and Types of Vertical Curve
      5. Design of Vertical Summit curve
      6. Design of Vertical Valley Curve
      7. Lowest and highest point of Vertical Curve
  1. Highway Drainage [4 hours]
    1. Introduction and Importance of Highway Drainage System
    2. Causes of Moisture Variation in Sub-grade Soil
    3. Surface Drainage System
      1. Different types of Road Side Drain
      2. Cross drainage structures (Culverts and others)
      3. Different Types of Energy Dissipating Structures
    4. Subsurface Drainage System
      1. Drainage of Infiltrated Water
      2. Control of Seepage Flow
      3. Lowering of Water Table
      4. Control of Capillary Rise
  1. Hill Roads [5 hours]
    1. Introduction
    2. Special Consideration in Hill Road Design
      1. Alignment of Hill Road Design: General Consideration, Route Location in Hills, Gradient, Design and Types of Hair Pin Bends, Different Types of Hill Road Cross Sections
    3. Special Structures in  Hill Road
      1. Types of Retaining Structures, River Training Structures, Land Slide Stabilization Structures and Gully Control Structures
  1. Highway Materials [10 hours]
    1. Introduction and Classification of Road Materials
    2. Sub-grade Soil
      1. General
      2. Characteristics of Sub-grade Soil
      3. Desirable Properties of Sub-grade Soil
    3. Road Aggregate
      1. Definition and Classification of Road Aggregates
      2. Desirable Properties of Road Aggregates
      3. Tests on Road Aggregates and their Significance
      4. Comparing Gradation Specification and Method of Translating Specification
      5. Combining of the Aggregates
    4. Bituminous Road Binders
      1. Definition and Classification of Road Binders
      2. Liquid Bitumen: Cut-back Bitumen and Bitumen Emulsion
      3. Tests on Bituminous Binders
    5. Bituminous Mixes
      1. Definition and Classification
      2. Marshal Method of Bitumen Mixe Design

There shall be related tutorials exercised in class and given as regular homework exercises.


  1. Los Angeles Abrasion Value and Crushing Value of  Aggregates
  2. Penetration Value; Viscosity; Softening Point and Ductility of Bitumen
  3. Skid Resistance Test on Road Surface
  4. Marshall Stability Test and Asphalt Mix Design
  5. Extraction of Bitumen from Mix and Gradation of Aggregate after Extraction

Reference Books:

  1. “A Text-book on Highway Engineering and Airports”, S.B.Sehgal and K.I. Bhanot, S. Chand and Co. Publishers Ltd., New Delhi
  2. “Principles, Practice and Design of Highway Engineering”, S.K. Sharma, S. Chand and Co. Publishers Ltd., New Delhi
  3. “Highway Engineering” Dr. S.K. Khanna and Dr. C.E.G.Justo, Nem Chand & Bros Roorkee (U.P.)
  4. “Highway Engineering” C.A. Flaherty, Edward Arnold (Publishers ) Ltd.
  5. “Course Manual on Transportation Engineering” P.M. Parajuli, Department of Civil Engineering, Pulchowk Campus 

Evaluation Scheme:
The question will cover all the chapters in the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:



Mark Distribution*






















*Note: There may be minor deviation in marks distribution.

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