Course Objective:
The objectives of this course are to introduce architectural engineering students with the fundamental knowledge of land measurement and surveying techniques. Overall course is designed to make the students able to learn and applying the suitable survey procedure and equipment for producing map.
  1. Introduction(3 hours)
    1.  Definition and historical background of surveying
    2.  Principle of surveying
    3.  Discipline of surveying and their significance
    4.  Scales, conventional surveying

  2. Linear Measurements(7 hours)
    1.  Units for distance and area measurements
    2.  Distance measurements technique and equipments
    3.  Accuracy, precision, error, sources of error, types of error
    4.  Use of abney level and clinometers for distance measurements
    5.  Principle of EDM and its application in distance measurements
    6.  Various corrections for linear distance measurements

  3. Chain and offset Survey(3 hours)
    1.  Introduction
    2.  Methods and principle of chain survey
    3.  Obstacles in chaining/ranging
    4.  Field instruction of chain survey

  4. Compass Traversing and Traverse Computation(7 hours)
    1.  Introduction, definition of meridian, bearing and azimuth
    2. Compass types, system of bearing, conversion from one system to another
    3.  Calculation of angles from bearings and vice versa
    4.  Magnetic declination and dip, variation in magnetic declination relation between true bearing, magnetic bearing and declination.
    5. Errors in compass survey (local attraction and observational error)
    6.  Field work and field book maintaining
    7.  Computation and plotting a traverse
    8.  Graphical method of distribution of error and permissible precision.

  5. Leveling(8 hours)
    1.  Basic definition and importance of leveling
    2.  Methods of leveling according to principles used
    3.  Levels and level rods, foot plates, rod bubbles
    4.  Temporary and permanent adjustment of level, two peg test
    5.  Booking and calculation of reduced level
    6. Classification of leveling, fly leveling, profile leveling, cross sectioning, reciprocal leveling,   precise leveling
    7.  Adjustment of level circuits
    8.  Sources of errors in leveling

  6. Contouring(4 hours)
    1.  Introduction, definition of contour interval, horizontal equivalent,
    2.  Factor affecting contour interval, characteristics of contour interval
    3.  Methods of locating contours
    4.  Methods for interpolation of contours
    5.  Uses of contour maps

  7. Area and volume(6 hours)
    1.  Area computed by subdividing the triangles
    2.  Area by coordinates method
    3.  Area within irregular boundaries,trapezoidal rules, Simpson's 1/3 rules
    4.  Area by mechanical method (planimeter-digital and analogue)
    5.  Measurement of volume using prismoidal and trapezoidal formula

  8. Plane Table Survey(4 hours)
    1. Introduction and definition
    2. Principles and methods of plane tabling
    3. Accessories used in plane tabling
    4. contour map using plane table and label instrument (direct method of contouring)
    5. Advantages and disadvantages of plane tabling

  9. Theodolite and traversing(6 hours)
    1.  Basic definition
    2.  Construction principle and parts of transit and theodolite
    3.  Temporary adjustment of transit and theodolite
    4.  Measurements of horizontal angle and vertical angles
    5.  Needs and significance of traversing
    6.  Field words for traversing, traverse field notes
    7. Traverse computation for closed and link traverse, reduction of reading to angles, balancing   or angles, computation of bearings and adjustment of bearings, computation of latitudes and departures, balancing of consecutive coordinates, computation of independent coordinates and plotting of traverse
    8.  Field problems and instructions

  10. Tacheometry(5 hours)
    1. Principle of optical distance measurements
    2. Stadia method, Tangential method using staff vertical and horizontal distance using sub tense bar
    3. Booking and plotting of details
    4. Field problems and instruction

  11. Total Station(3 hours)
    1. Introduction
    2. Features of Total Station
    3. Field procedures for Total Station in Topographical Surveying

  12. Layout of building with different methods(4 hours)
    1. Introduction
    2. Setting out by using chain and tape only for small building
    3. Setting out by using theodolite and tape for large building
    4. Setting out vertical control-setting out level and large building sites from foundation to floor  level. Use of leveling for instrument for fixing.
Field works and Practical:
  1. Linear measurement techniques in plane and sloping ground (4 hours)
  2. Field survey using chain, tape and compass (8 hours)
  3. Two peg test and fly leveling (8 hours)
  4. Leveling field survey to determine profile and cross section (8 hours)
  5. Plane table survey and preparation of topo map using level (8 hours)
  6. Traverse angle distance measurement using theodolite and total station (8 hours)
  7. Computation and plotting of theodolite traverse including details (12 hours)
  8. Setting out practice for building (4 hours)
  1. R Banister and S Raymond “Surveying- ELBS” Latest edition
  2. BC Punima “Surveying” Laxmi Publishers New Delhi
  3. R. Agor “Surveying and Leveling”  Khanna Publishers, Delhi
  4. N N Basak “ Surveying”  Tata Mc Graw Hill Education Private Limited New Delhi
Evaluation Scheme:



Marks Distribution*










6 & 7









10, 11 & 12






*Note: There may be minor deviation in marks distribution.
 *50 marks: from field performance, viva, instrumentation and report

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