Survey Networks
Course objectives:
The objective of this course is to introduce the knowledge of geodetic network, control points and their computations. This course deals with the knowledge of selection of suitable network, methodology of surveying in there and computation of the particular network with and without redundancy. The course is intended to provide the knowledge of selection, implementation and computation of surveying station and different surveying network using least square adjustment technique.<>

Course outline:

  1. Introduction (2 hours)
    1. Introduction to surveying and survey network, Plane and Geodetic Surveying, need and use of Control points and surveying network.

  2. Reference system (7 hours)
    1. Plane coordinate system, geodetic coordinate system, Geodetic, geocentric and astronomical latitude, Geodetic, geocentric and astronomical longitude, Earth centered Earth fixed coordinate system, Laplace equation, deflection of vertical and Laplace station.
    2. International terrestrial reference system (ITRF), WGS72, NAD83, WGS84 and Everest 1830 Ellipsoidal datum, Datum transformation from geodetic system to Cartesain and vice versa, determination of transformation parameters.

  3. Triangulation (10 hours)
    1. Principle of Triangulation, objective of triangulation survey, Types of triangulation stations, signals, instrument support, size of target
    2. Well-conditioned triangles, strength of figure, Single Chain of triangles, Double chain of triangles, Braced quadrilaterals, Centered triangles and polygons, chain of polygons, chain of quadrilaterals, Criteria for selection of the layouts of triangles
    3. Triangulation procedure, Reconnaissance, station selection, signal erection, base line measurement, equipment for base line measurement, extension of base line, obstruction of Horizontal Angles, Repetition method, direction method, measurement of vertical angles
      Field notes of baseline measurement

  4. Trilateration (3 hours)
    1. Definition, principle of Trilateration, procedure of Trilateration, Difference between triangulation and Trilateration, redundancy and check in Trilateration, Resection, Intersection and their computations

  5. National Geodetic Networks (4 hours)
    1. History of Nepalese Geodetic Network, Laplace stations in Nepal, establishment of Laplace Station, First Order, Second Order, and Third Order Trig. Points, Coverage of the trigonometric points

  6. National Leveling Network (4 hours)
    1. Reference level surface for national leveling network Orthometric and ellipsoidal height, relationship between orthometric and ellipsoidal height and their determination

  7. National Gravity Network (4 hours)
    1. History, Nagarkot datum, Gravity stations in Nepal, Use and Extension of National Gravity station, Determination of Geoid from Gravity measurement.

  8. Error Adjustment of Geodetic Network (6 hours)
    1. Different types of Error in Geodetic Surveying,
    2. Linear and nonlinear Adjustment of Geodetic observation,
    3. Development of algorithm for the adjustment of network,
    4. Redundant observation, development of algorithm for the adjustment of network,
    5. Redundant observations, covariance matrices and error propagation model,
    6. Error Ellipse and confidence level.

  9. Survey network design and test (5 hours)
    1. Pre-analysis
      1. Traverse design
      2. Property survey design
    2. Post analysis

Practical and Field Work:

  1. Determination of North direction using the Sun and its computation(6 hours)
  2. Observation of leveling network with redundancy(4 hours)
  3. GPS network adjustment using least square estimation(4 hours)
  4. Resection and intersection observation with redundancy(4 hours)
  5. Computation of above observation using programming language, MatLab or Java or C or C++(4 hours)
  6. Depiction of Error Ellipse of each station using same programming language.(4 hours)
  7. Exercises on pre-analysis and post analysis(7 hours)
  8. Theory and exercises on:
    1. Solution of unique cases(6 hours)
    2. Solution of overburden cases(6 hours)


  1. A lecture note:
    Mathematical models for horizontal geodetic networks by J.Krakiwsky and D.B. Thomson, December 1999
  2. A lecture note:
    A manual for the establishment and assessment of horizontal survey networks by E.J.Krakiwasky, B.G. Nickerson and D.B. Thomson, April 1978.
  3. A thesis:
    Design and assessment of horizontal survey networks by A.Phiip Mackenzie 1989.
  4. Class notes and seminar papers supplied by class teacher and department.
  5. Journals published by Survey Department (for National Deodetic Networks, find a sample in the attachment)
  6. Plane and Geodetic Surveying by Azlmer Johnson, Spon Press, 2004
  7. Geometrical Geodesy Part A and B, by R.E. Deankin and M.N. Hunter, School of mathematical and geospatial science, RMIT University Melbourne, Australia
  8. Adjustment computations: Spatial Data Analysis by Charles D. Ghilani
  9. Lecture Note on Geodesy by Joeni Kahar for Reasearch Center for Seismology, Volcanology and Disaster Mitigation at Graduate School on Environment Studies. Nagoya University, April 2004

Evaluation scheme:
The question will cover all the chapters in the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as mentioned in the table below:




Marks allocation*
























*There may be minor variation in marks distribution

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