Rural Engineering and Infrastructure

Course objective
This course provides students a basic knowledge about rural road, rural water supply and sanitation. The first & second topics of this course are aimed to provide the students a basic concept about road planning, with special emphasis on green road, cross drainage structures & retaining structures, basic concept on geometric design, bio-engineering techniques and highway maintenance. The third topic is about suspended bridge. The fourth and fifth topics deal with rural water supply, and the sixth topic deals with solid waste management and septic tank design.

  1. Introduction [1 hour]
    1. Definition and Scope of the Subject
    2. Transportation System Classification
    3. Advantage and Disadvantages of Road Transportation System

  2. Rural Roads with Green Road Concepts in Nepal [16 hours]
    1. Rural Road Planning:
      1. Road Classification: Types of roads: Rural road, National highway, Feeder road, District road, Village road
      2. Approach to rural road planning
      3. Existing policies and strategies on rural roads in Nepal.
      4. Problems at different stage for road planning in Nepal
    2. Green Road Concepts:
      1. Introduction
      2. Core Principals and Basic Principles
      3. Planning
      4. Implementation Arrangements
      5. Construction Technology
      6. Maintenance and Rehabilitation
    3. Geometric Design:
      1. Importance of geometric design, Basic design criteria
      2. Parameters and Standards
      3. Introduction to Design speed, Camber, Superelevation, & Extra widening.
      4. Pavement- types and difference between Flexible & Rigid pavement.
      5. Traffic lane capacity
      6. Curves: Simple circular and Transition curves
      7. Axle loads
      8. Horizontal and Vertical alignments
      9. Cut and fill including mass balance
      10. Flexible pavement design using GI and CBR methods
      11. Numerical on Geometric Design
    4. Cross Drainage Structures
      1. Introduction
      2. Water management of dispersed and concentrated flows
      3. Pipe culvert
      4. Slab culvert
      5. Arch culvert
      6. Box culvert
      7. Scoopers
      8. Flood Crossways
      9. Road side drainage
      10. Dry Stone Masonry, Crossways and Fords
    5. Road side Retaining Structures
      1. Introduction
      2. Rip-rap Protection (stone pitching)
      3. Dry Stone Masonry
      4. Gravity Walls and Composite Masonry Walls
      5. Gabion Walls
      6. Simple RCC Walls
      7. Revetment Walls
    6. Bio-Engineering Measures:
      1. Introduction
      2. Bio-Engineering Functions
      3. Stabilizing Slopes with Bio-Engineering
      4. Bio-Engineering Techniques
      5. Use of Bio-Engineering Techniques for slope stabilization
    7. Highway Maintenance:
      1. Failure of Pavement
      2. Classification of maintenance
      3. Maintenance of Earth road, Gravel road, Water-bound macadam
      4. Road, and Bituminous Pavement.

  3. Suspended Bridge [4 hours]
    1. Introduction to Bridge and Culvert
    2. Types of Bridge: Suspension and Suspended Bridge,
      1. Deck and Slab Bridge, Truss Bridge, Wooden Log Bridge
    3. Site selection criterion for Suspended Bridge
    4. Introduction to Trail Road

  4. Rural Water Supply [16 hours]
    1. Introduction:
      1. Objectives of Water Supply
      2. Impacts of Water Supply Scheme
      3. Water Right Problems
      4. Major Works in a Water Supply Scheme
    2. Sources of water supply: Surface, Ground, Precipitation & Water Reclamation
    3. Brief Introduction to different sources of water - spring, Stream, River, Well (Dug well, Tube well and Artesian well) and Lake.
      1. Numerical on reservoir capacity
    4. Selection of source
    5. Estimation of quantities of Rural Water Supply
      1. Water Demand
      2. Types of Demand
      3. Variation in Water Demand
      4. Factors affecting Water Demand
      5. Population Forecast (Arithmetical Increase Method, Geometrical Increase Method and Incremental Increase Method)
      6. Numerical on water demand and population forecast
    6. Quality consideration in Rural Water supply:
      1. Types of Impurities and their Remedial Measures
      2. WHO Guide Line for Drinking Water Quality
    7. Water Treatment Methods:
      1. Analysis of water
      2. Purpose of water analysis
      3. Introduction to different treatment methods:
        1. Screening – Coarse screen and Fine screen
        2. Sedimentation – Plain sedimentation and Sedimentation with coagulation
        3. Filtration: Slow Sand Filter, Rapid Sand Filter (Introduction only)
        4. Disinfection – Methods, Chlorination, Breakpoint Chlorination, Disinfectant Residuals
        5. Miscellaneous Treatments – Aeration and Softening (Introduction only)
      4. Numerical on Plain Sedimentation and Chlorine Dose
    8. Intake Works:
      1. Definition
      2. Site selection for an intake
      3. Types of Intake - Brief description to River, Reservoir and Spring Intake.
    9. Reservoir and Distribution system:
      1. System of Supply and Method of Supply
      2. Types of reservoir
      3. Numerical on Balancing Reservoir
    10. Pipes and Pipe-fittings in distribution system

  5. Introduction on water tanks [4 hours]
    1. Ferro-cement tank
    2. Masonry and RCC tanks

  6. Waste disposal and Management [4 hours]
    1. Rural Sanitation
      1. Introduction
      2. Collection and disposal of dry refuse and sullage
      3. Disposal of night soil
      4. Design of Simple Pit Latrine, VIP Latrine, Pour-flush Latrine, Septic Tank and Soak pits.
      5. Numerical on septic tank & soak pit
    2. Solid waste Generation and Collection
      1. Introduction
      2. Classification of solid waste
      3. Composition and quality of solid waste
      4. Solid Waste disposal by Landfill and Composting
  1. Design of Rural Roads with the help of contour maps
  2. Design of Rural Water Supply scheme
  3. Design of Septic Tank and Soak-pit
  4. Design and layout of pipe line for domestic water supply system


  1. One day visit to nearby water supply source and office.
  2. One day visit to nearby hill road.


  1. Transportation Engineering by VN Vazrani and SP Chandola
  2. Green Road Manuals by GTZ, Nepal
  3. Suspended and Suspension Bridge Manuals by HELVETAS &DOR, Nepal
  4. Road side bio-engineering hand book, DOR, Nepal Government.
  5. Water supply Engineering by Dr. P.N. Modi
  6. Water Supply and Sanitation by B.C. Punmia
  7. Highway Engineering by S.K. Khanna & C.E.G. Justo
  8. NRS (Nepal Road Standards)
  9. Principals and practices of Highway Engineering by L. R. Kadyali& N. B. Lal
  10. Gravity Flow Water Supply System - GTZ, and UNICEF Publications.

Evaluation Scheme:
The questions will cover all the chapters in the Syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below.



Marks Distribution*





















*Note: There may be minor deviation in marks distribution.

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