Course Objective:
The objective of the photogrammetry course is to gain familiarity with the basic principles of photogrammetric operations. The course emphasizes on mathematical concepts in photogrammetry, the possibility of object space reconstruction from imagery and incorporation of additional sensory data from GPS/INS units in photogrammetric triangulation.

Course outline:

  1. Introductory concepts (2 hours)
    1. Definitions
    2. Sources of Photogrammetric information
    3. Types and uses of Photogrammetry-aerial and terrestrial, metric and non-metric
    4. Platform for photogrammetric sensing systems
    5. History and developments in the field of photogrammetry
    6. Differences between traditional and digital photogrammetry

  2. Elementary Photogrammetry (5 hours)
    1. Perspective Projection
    2. Scale and Coverage
    3. Vanishing points
    4. Image coordinate system
    5. Relief displacement
    6. Parallax
    7. Stereo
      1. Stereo vision
      2. Vertical exaggeration
      3. Stereo image separation techniques
      4. Image overlap
      5. Epipolar planes and lines

  3. Mathematical concepts in Photogrammetry (10 hours)
    1. Photogrammetric transformations
    2. Coordinate reference systems
      1. Image space coordinate system
      2. Object space coordinate systems
      3. Camera coordinate systems
    3. Mathematical relationship between image and ground coordinates
      1. Theory of Orientation
      2. Interior Orientation (IO)
      3. Exterior Orientation (EO)
      4. Relative Orientation (RO)
      5. Absolute Orientation (AO)
      6. Classification of points used in orientation
      7. Photogrammetric Conditions: Collinearity and coplanarity equations 

  4. Photogrammetric Triangulation (8 hours)
    1. Investigating the possibility of object space reconstruction from imagery using
      1. Single image
      2. Stereo-pair (two overlapping images)
      3. Single flight lines (Strip triangulation)
      4. Image blocks:
        1. Block Adjustment of Independent Models (BAIM)
        2. Bundle Block Adjustment
        3. Block Adjustment with added parameters (Self-Calibration)
      5. Advantages and disadvantages
      6. Statistical Evaluation: Precision, Accuracy, and Reliability.

  5. Direct versus Indirect Orientation (8 hours)
    1. Incorporating additional sensory data from GPS/INS units in photogrammetric triangulations
      1. Advantages
      2. Prerequisites
      3. Mathematical model
      4. Direct versus indirect orientation
      5. Flight planning

  6. Digital photogrammetry (5 hours)
    1. Digital imagery
    2. Digital image processing
    3. Digital image resampling
    4. Digital image compression
    5. Digital image measurement
    6. Feature extraction

  7. Photogrammetric Products (5 hours)
    1. Concept of DEM, DSM, nDSM, and DTM
    2. DEM representation and generation
      1. Raster versus TIN representation
      2. Automatic DEM generation
      3. Normalized image generation
    3. Orthophoto production
      1. Polynomial rectification
      2. Differential rectification
      3. Image resampling techniques
      4. True orthophoto production  

  8. Application of Aerial photographs (2 hours)
    1. Use of aerial photographs in highways, transmission lines and canals
    2. Use of aerial photographs in cadastral survey
    3. Use of aerial photographs in land and natural resource survey

Computer Lab:
The practical classes should cover the following topics:

  1. Parallax and relief displacement
  2. Interior and exterior orientations
  3. Measurement of object coordinates
  4. Aerial triangulation
  5. Block adjustment
  6. DTM via image matching
  7. Orthophoto production

Computer programming in first five exercises using C or C++.


  1. Elements of Photogrammetry by Paul R. Wolf, McGraw-Hill, Inc
  2. A text book of advanced surveying by J. L Sharma and M.D. Joshi, CBS publication India.
  3. Manual of remote sensing Volume I and II, American Society of Photogrammetry, Fall Church Virginia USA.
  4. Edward M. Mikhail, James S. Bethal and J. Cris McGlone, Introduction to Modern Photogrammetry. John Weley & Sons publisher.
  5. Chris Meglone, Edward Mikhail, and Jim Bethel, Manual of Photogrammetry. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 5th edition, 1980.
  6. Wilfried Linder. Digital photogrammetry: A practical guide. Spinger, 3rd

Evaluation Scheme:
The question will cover all the chapters in the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:




Marks allocation*
























*Note: There may be minor variation in marks distribution

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