Material Science

Course Objective
To analyze the relationship between the structure and properties of ferrous alloys, non-ferrous alloys, polymer, ceramic and composite materials. Students will be able to select suitable material for different applications on the basis of their properties.

  1. Introduction to Materials(1 hour)
    1. Types of Materials
    2. Relationship among structures, processing and properties
    3. Material selection for design

  2. Atomic Structure, arrangement of atoms(8 hours)
    1. Structure of atom, periodic table, binding energy and bonds
    2. Atomic arrangements
      1. Crystal and amorphous
      2. Crystal geometry
      3. Unit cell
      4. Lattices, points, directions, planes in a unit cell
      5. Millers’ indices
      6. Allotropic and polymorphic transformation
    3. Imperfections in the atomic arrangement                                                        
      1. Imperfections
      2. Point defects, surface defects, dislocation
      3. Deformation by slip and twinning
      4. Schmid’s Law
    4. Movement of atoms in materials
      1. Fick’s First Law and Second Law

  3. Mechanical Properties and their tests (9 hours)   
    1. Tensile Test                                                                                                  
      1. Load- Deformation Diagrams
      2. Engineering stress-strain diagram for ductile and brittle materials
      3. True stress-strain diagram
      4. Properties tested from tensile test, temperature effects
      5. Brittle behavior and notch effects.
    2. Hardness Test                                                                                                
      1. Main hardness testing methods
      2. Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers, Knoop test
      3. Microhardness test,  Hardness conversion table
    3. Impact Test                                                                                                    
      1. Toughness
      2. Types of impact test, Charpy and Izod test
      3. Significance of Transition - Temperature curve, Notch sensitivity
    4. Fatigue Test                                                                                                    
      1. Fatigue failure
      2. S-N curve, Endurance limit, Fatigue strength versus fatigue limit
      3. Preventions
    5. Creep Test
      1. Creep failure
      2. Creep and stress rupture curve
      3. Effect of temperature and stress level on creep life
      4. Preventions

  4. Deforming process for materials(6 hours)   
    1. Cold work
      1. Cold work and its types
      2. Strain Hardening and the stress-strain curve
      3. Properties versus degree of Cold-work
      4. Microstructure and residual stress in cold worked metals
    2. Treatment after Cold-work                                                                                   
      1. Annealing
      2. Three stages of annealing (recovery, recrystallization and graingrowth)
    3. Hot-work                                                                                                              
      1. Hot-work process and its types
      2. Comparison between Hot-work and Cold-work

  5. Solidification, Phase Relations and Strengthening Mechanism(7 hours)
    1. Solidification
      1. Nucleation and grain growth
      2. Dendrite formation
      3. Cooling curve
      4. Under-cooling Cast structure
      5. Solidification defect
      6. Solid solutions, Solid solutions strengthening
    2. Phase relations and equilibrium                                                                          
      1. Phase, phase rule
      2. Phase diagram containing three- phase reactions
      3. Lever rule, four important three phase reactions, and Eutectic phase diagram
    3. Strengthening Mechanism                                                                                    
      1. Alloys strengthening by exceeding solubility limit
      2. Age hardening or precipitation hardening
      3. Residual stress during quenching and heating

  6. Iron – Iron Carbide diagram and Heat Treatment of Steels (10 hours)   
    1. Iron – Iron Carbide Diagram                                                                                   
      1. Applications and limitations of Iron– Iron Carbide Diagram
      2. Different mixtures and phases ( ferrite, austenite, pearlite, martensite)
      3. Classification of steels and cast iron referring to Iron- Iron Carbide Phase diagram
    2. Simple Heat Treatments                                                                                 
      1. Annealing and its types ( Full annealing, homogenizing, spheroidizing), their method, applications
      2. Normalizing method and its application, comparison between annealing and   normalizing.
      3. Quenching ( method and application), quenching medium, hardenability, Jominy test, TTT diagram, CCT diagram
      4. Tempering, its types, applications
      5. Different types of surface hardening processes, nitriding, carburizing, cyaniding

  7. Types of steels and cast iron(3 hours)   
    1. Types of alloy steels
      1. High-strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steel, Stainless steel, Tool Steel
      2. Weldability of steels, Embrittlement phenomenon of steels
    2. Cast Iron
      1. Types of Cast Iron (gray, white, malleable, ductile)
      2. Properties and application of Cast Iron

  8. Environmental Effects (1 hour)   
    1. Galvanic and Stress corrosion, Corrosion protection

  9. Non-ferrous Alloys(3 hours)
    1. Aluminum alloys

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