Hydraulics
Course Objective:
The knowledge of hydraulics is essential to the design of many hydraulic structures. The knowledge of hydraulic is very important to the students and engineers in the field of hydraulic engineering . Hence, this course has been designed to provide basic knowledge of hydraulics to the students of civil engineering so that it would be helpful them to understand the basic phenomena of this science. This course shall be considered as an introduction: common for all civil engineering faculties of Tribhuvan University in the second year second part of undergraduate.
 Pipe flow (9 hours)
 Introduction to pipe flow, distinguish between pipe and open channel flow. Reynolds experiment and flow based on Reynolds’s number
 Laminar flow (Steady uniform incompressible flow in a circular pipe, shear stress, and velocity distribution)
 Head loss, Hagen Poisseuille equation.
 Turbulent flow. Shear stress development, Prandtl’s mixing length theory, velocity Distribution, DarcyWeisbach equation, Nikuradse’s experiments.
 Resistance for commercial pipes, variation of friction factor with Reynold number, ColebrookWhite equation, Moody’s diagram
 Minor head losses in pipes (losses in sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, Exit loss, entry loss, losses in bends and losses due to different fittings).
 HGL and TEL lines for several cases
 Simple pipe flow problems and solution (5 hours)
 Three types of simple pipe flow problems and their solution
 Pipe is series, Dupuit equation. Concept of equivalent pipe length
 Pipe in parallel. Different kind of problems and their solution
 Siphons and its application
 Computer programme coding for simple problems
 Three reservoirs problem and Pipe networks (6 hours)
 Introduction to three reservoir problems
 Solution procedures for possible different cases.
 Introduction to pipe network problems and application
 HardyCross method of solving of pipe networks problems
 Solution procedure by HardyCross method for single and double loops of pipe networks with examples
 Computer programme coding for simple problems
 Unsteady flow in pipes (5 hours)
 Basic equations for unsteady flow: celerity, Euler’s Equation and continuity equation.
 water hammer and its effects
 Propagation of elastic wave in rigid and elastic pipe
 Pressure variation due to gradual and sudden closure of pipe. Pressure variation at given point due to sudden closure of pipe.
 Brief information about the relief devices against water hammer effects as surge tanks.
 Basics of Open channel flow (3 hours)
 Introduction to open channel flow and its practical application, differences between open and pipe flows.
 Classification (natural and artificial channel, prismatic and nonprismatic channel, rigid boundary and mobile boundary channel).
 Geometric properties (depth of flow, area of flow, top width, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, hydraulic depth, bed or longitudinal slope, hydraulic slope, energy slope)
 Classification of open channel flow (Steady unsteady; uniform nonuniform; laminar turbulent; subcritical, super critical, critical and super critical flow; gradually varied, rapidly varied and spatially varied flow)
 Uniform flow in open channel (7 hours)
 Condition of uniform flow, expression for the shear stress on the boundary of channel
 Flow resistance equations. DarcyWeisbach, Chezy and Manning equations and their relationship.
 Determination and factors affecting manning’s roughness coefficient
 Velocity profile for laminar and turbulent flow, velocity distribution
 Velocity distribution coefficients and their application
 Conveyance, section factor, normal depth and hydraulic exponent for uniform flow computation
 Problems of uniform flow computation
 Best Hydraulic channel sections and determination of section dimensions (rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal and circular section)
 Computer programme coding for simple problems
 Energy and Momentum Principles in Open channel flow (11 hours)
 Energy principle, specific energy, specific energy curve, criteria for critical flow
 Critical depth computations for all kind of channel sections (prismatic as well as non prismatic) and criteria for critical state of flow.
 Discharge depth relationship
 Application of energy principle and concepts of critical depth concepts (channel width reduction, rise in channel bed, venture flume and broad crested weir)
 Momentum principle, specific force, specific force curve, criteria for critical state of flow, conjugate depth.
 Computer programme coding for simple problems
 Nonuniform gradually varied flow (GVF) (6 hours)
 Introduction to GVF. Basic assumptions, Dynamic equation and its physical meaning
 Characteristics bed slopes ( mild, critical, steep, horizontal and adverse).
 Characteristics and analysis of flow profiles
 Computation of GVF in prismatic channels by (graphical integration, direct integration and direct step and standard step methods)
 Computer programme coding for simple problems
 Nonuniform rapidly varied flow (RVF) (4 hours)
 Characteristics of RVF. Hydraulic jump as an energy dissipater
 Hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel. Relationship between hydraulic jump variables (conjugate depth, height of the jump, efficiency jump, length of the jump)
 Energy loss in jump
 Classification of the jump based on the tail water level and Froude number
 Practical application of jump at spillway toe, falls etc.
 computer programme coding for simple problems
 Flow in mobile boundary channel (4 hours)
 Introduction to rigid and mobile boundary channel
 Rigid boundary channel and its design principle (minimum permissible velocity approach).
 Definition of alluvial channel. Shear stress distribution on the channel boundary.
 Incipient motion condition
 Design of MBC by three approaches (the permissible velocity, tractive force and regime theory approaches)
 Introduction to Shied diagram and its application for designing MBC
 Formation of river beds based on the shear stress.
References:
 Ven Te Chow “Open channel hydraulic” McGrawHill book company limited, 1973
 K G Ranga Raju “Flow through open channel” Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, Second Edition,1993.
 D.S. Kumar “Fluid Mechanics and Fluid power Engineering” S.K. Kataria and Sons, sixth edition, 2005
 K. L. Kumar “Engineering Fluid Mechanics” Eurasia Publishing house (P) Ltd. Ram Nagar New Delhi, 2000.
 S Ramamrutham “Hydraulics fluid mechanics and fluid machines”,. Dhanpat Rai Publishing Company (P) Ltd. New Delhi Seventh Edition 2006
Practical:
The following exercises will be performed in this course. These are:
 Head loss in Pipe
 Determination of manning's coefficient for different surfaces.
 Flow through open sluice gate
 Hump and constricted flow analysis
 Hydraulic jump analysis
Tutorials:
 Pipe flow (3 hours) : Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation. There will be tutorial for each subsection
 Simple pipe flow problem and solution (2 hours) : Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation.
 Three reservoir problems and pipe networks (4 hours) :Practical examples, and numerical examples. Use of computer programme(studied in I/I) for solving exercises
 Unsteady flow in pipes (3 hours) : Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation. There will be tutorial for each subsection
 Basics of open channel flow (1 hour)
 Uniform Flow (3 hours) : Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation. There will be tutorial for each subsection.Use of computer programme (studied in I/I) to solve some problems
 Energy and momentum principles in open channel flow (4 hours) : Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation. There will be tutorial for each subsection. Use of computer programme (studied in I/I) to solve some problems
 Nonuniform Gradually varied flow (4 hours) : Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation :: Drawings for flow profiles.There will be tutorial for each subsection :: Use of computer programme (studied in I/I) to solve some problems
 Nonuniform Rapidly Varied flow (2 hours) :Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation. There will be tutorial for each subsection
 Flow in mobile boundary channel (2 hours) : Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation
Evaluation Scheme:
The question will cover all the chapters of the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:
Chapters 
Hours 
Marks distribution* 
1 
9 
8 
2 
5 
8 
3 
6 
10 
4 
5 
8 
5 
3 
4 
6 
7 
10 
7 
11 
12 
8 
6 
8 
9 
4 
6 
10 
4 
6 
Total 
60 
80 
*Note: There may be minor deviation in marks distribution
