##### GEODETIC POSITIONING AND GRAVITY FIELD IN GEODESY
Course Objectives:

1. To become familiar with coordinate systems, different relative horizontal and vertical positioning systems.
2. To become familiar earth gravity systems.

Course outline:

1. Introduction (2 hours)
1. The Need for positioning
2. Review of Coordinate Systems

2. Relative Positioning by Terrestrial Methods (8 hours)
1. Three Dimensional Relative Positioning
2. Relative Horizontal Positioning on Reference Ellipsoid
3. Relative Horizontal Positioning on Conformal Mapping Plane
4. Relative Vertical Positioning

3. Positioning by Astronomic Methods (6 hours)
1. Coordinate Systems and Star Coordinate Updating
2. Mathematical Models for Latitude Longitude and Azimuth

4. Positioning by the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) System (8 hours)
1. GPS System
2. GPS Mathematical Models
3. GPS Results

5. Positioning by Inertial Navigation System (INS) (8 hours)
2. Mathematical Models
3. Kalman Filtering

6. Gravity force, Potential and anomaly (13 hours)
1. Newton's Law of attracting force
2. Gravity force
3. Determination of gravity on the Geoid Surface
4. Normal formula for the gravity
5. Gravity Potential
1. Potential of a Spherical body
2. Properties of the Potential and its values
3. Harmonical functions
6. Gravity reduction
1. Ellipsoid, Geoid, and anomaly of the gravity
2. Correction due to the heights of the points
3. Free air anomaly
4. Boyger anomaly
5. Isotasy
6. Earth tide correction
7. Gravimeters
1. Absolute and relative gravimeters
2. Conception of gravimeter of construction and its Systems
3. Different Types of Gravimeters
4. Gravity observations and computation of the results

Tutorials:
Positioning computations and computer programming on exercise.

Reference:

1. J. Kakiwsky and D.E. Wlls-Coordinate System in Geodesy 1990, University of Calgary.
2. J. Krakiwsky and D.B. Thomson-Geodetic Positioning Computations 1990, University of Calgary.
3. Roberts, E.J. Krakiwsky and D. Szabo-Procedures and Methodology for Second Order Astronomic Positioning 1993, University of Calgary.
4. B. Thomsons, E.J. Krakwisky and J.R. Adams-A Mannual for Geodetic Computations in the maritime Provinces, University of Calgary.
5. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. Lichtenegger and J. Collins, Springer-Verlag, New York. GPS Theory and Practice
6. Selected technical papers as recommended by the Geomatics Department
7. Gilbert Strang-Linear Algebra, Geodesy and GPS 1997
8. Navstar Global Positioning System Surveying – American Society of Civil Engineers 2000
9. Pradip Misra and Per Enge, Ganga-Jamuna Press, Lincoln, Massachusetts USA-Global Positioning System 2012.
10. A class note: GPS mathematical models for static and kinematic positioning by H. Martel, E.J Krakiwsky and M Abousalem

Assessment: Averaging of three

Evaluation Scheme:
The question will cover all the chapters in the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:

 S.N. Chapter Hours Marks Distribution* 1 1,2 10 16 2 3,6.1-6.4 9 16 3 4 8 16 4 5 7 16 5 6 10 16 Total 45 80
*Note: There may be minor deviation in marks distribution