GEODETIC POSITIONING AND GRAVITY FIELD IN GEODESY
Course Objectives:
 To become familiar with coordinate systems, different relative horizontal and vertical positioning systems.
 To become familiar earth gravity systems.
Course outline:
 Introduction (2 hours)
 The Need for positioning
 Review of Coordinate Systems
 Relative Positioning by Terrestrial Methods (8 hours)
 Three Dimensional Relative Positioning
 Relative Horizontal Positioning on Reference Ellipsoid
 Relative Horizontal Positioning on Conformal Mapping Plane
 Relative Vertical Positioning
 Positioning by Astronomic Methods (6 hours)
 Coordinate Systems and Star Coordinate Updating
 Mathematical Models for Latitude Longitude and Azimuth
 Positioning by the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) System (8 hours)
 GPS System
 GPS Mathematical Models
 GPS Results
 Positioning by Inertial Navigation System (INS) (8 hours)
 Fundamentals of Inertial Navigation
 Mathematical Models
 Kalman Filtering
 Gravity force, Potential and anomaly (13 hours)
 Newton's Law of attracting force
 Gravity force
 Determination of gravity on the Geoid Surface
 Normal formula for the gravity
 Gravity Potential
 Potential of a Spherical body
 Properties of the Potential and its values
 Harmonical functions
 Gravity reduction
 Ellipsoid, Geoid, and anomaly of the gravity
 Correction due to the heights of the points
 Free air anomaly
 Boyger anomaly
 Isotasy
 Earth tide correction
 Gravimeters
 Absolute and relative gravimeters
 Conception of gravimeter of construction and its Systems
 Different Types of Gravimeters
 Gravity observations and computation of the results
Tutorials:
Positioning computations and computer programming on exercise.
Reference:
 J. Kakiwsky and D.E. WllsCoordinate System in Geodesy 1990, University of Calgary.
 J. Krakiwsky and D.B. ThomsonGeodetic Positioning Computations 1990, University of Calgary.
 Roberts, E.J. Krakiwsky and D. SzaboProcedures and Methodology for Second Order Astronomic Positioning 1993, University of Calgary.
 B. Thomsons, E.J. Krakwisky and J.R. AdamsA Mannual for Geodetic Computations in the maritime Provinces, University of Calgary.
 HofmannWellenhof, H. Lichtenegger and J. Collins, SpringerVerlag, New York. GPS Theory and Practice
 Selected technical papers as recommended by the Geomatics Department
 Gilbert StrangLinear Algebra, Geodesy and GPS 1997
 Navstar Global Positioning System Surveying – American Society of Civil Engineers 2000
 Pradip Misra and Per Enge, GangaJamuna Press, Lincoln, Massachusetts USAGlobal Positioning System 2012.
 A class note: GPS mathematical models for static and kinematic positioning by H. Martel, E.J Krakiwsky and M Abousalem
Assessment: Averaging of three
Evaluation Scheme:
The question will cover all the chapters in the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:
S.N. 
Chapter 
Hours 
Marks Distribution* 
1 
1,2 
10 
16 
2 
3,6.16.4 
9 
16 
3 
4 
8 
16 
4 
5 
7 
16 
5 
6 
10 
16 
Total 
45 
80 
*Note: There may be minor deviation in marks distribution
