Foundation Engineering
Course Objective:
The objective of this course is to provide the student with the basic concepts and tools that can be used to determine the structure/ foundation/ soil interactions. The courses include a review of soil mechanics principles and deal with a variety of foundations and retaining walls.
 Introduction [1 hour]
 Foundation Engineering, Importance and purpose
 Classification and general requirement
 Factors influencing the choice of a foundation
 Selection of the type
 Soil Exploration [6 Hours]
 Introduction
 Methods of exploration
 Planning the exploration programme
 Method of boring
 Soil sampling and soil samplers
 Vertical and lateral extent of borings
 Field tests like Penetration test( Standard Penetration Test, Static Cone Penetration Test, Dynamic Cone Penetration Test) Pressure meter tests, dialatometer test and field Vane shear test.
 Ground water observations
 Borehole logs
 Site investigation reports
 Lateral Earth Pressure Theories and Retaining Walls [10 Hours]
 Introduction
 Effect of wall movement on Earth pressure
 Earth pressure at Rest
 Classical Earth Pressure Theories
 Rankine’s theory
 Coulomb’s theory
 Yielding of wall of limited height
 Graphical solution for coulomb’s earth pressure
 Trial wedge method for earth pressure
 Proportioning of retaining walls
 Stability of retaining walls
 Arching in Soils and Braced Cuts [3 Hours]
 Arching in soils
 Braced excavations
 Earth pressure against bracings in cuts
 Heave of the bottom of cut in soft clays
 Strut loads
 Deep cuts in sand
 Deep cut in saturated, soft to medium clays
 Flexible Retaining Structures and Coffer Dams [3 Hours]
 Introduction
 Cantilever sheet pile wall
 Anchored wall
 Coffer dams
 Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Shallow Foundations [6 Hours]
 Introduction
 Basic Definitions and their relationship.
 Principle modes of soil failure
 Bearing capacity by classical Earth pressure theory of Rankine
 Pauker and Bell‘s bearing capacity theory of failure
 Prandtl’s theory of failure
 Terzaghi’s method of determining bearing capacity of soil
 Effect of water table on bearing capacity
 Extension of Terzaghis bearing capacity theory
 Recent bearing capacity theories
 Bearing capacity from Insitu tests (Plate load test)
 Types of settlement and their relationships.
 Allowable settlement and allowable bearing pressure
 Steps involved in the proportion of footings
 Mat Foundations [3 Hours]
 Introduction
 Common types of mat foundation
 Bearing capacity and settlement of mat foundations
 Compensated foundation
 Analysis of mat foundation
 Pile Foundations [6 Hours]
 Introduction
 Types and uses of piles
 Construction of piles
 Selection of pile type
 Types of foundations to suit subsoil conditions
 Pile driving formula
 Static pile load formulae
 Load test on piles
 Dynamics pile formulae
 Pile capacity from insitu tests.
 Group action of piles
 Negative skin friction
 Laterally load piles
 Piles subjected to uplift loads
 Well Foundations [4 Hours]
 Introduction
 Types of wells or caissons
 Components of a well foundation
 Shapes of wells
 Depth of a well foundation
 Forces acting on well foundation
 Lateral stability of well foundation
 Construction and sinking of a well
 Foundation Soil Improvements [3 Hours]
 Introduction
 Mechanical compaction.
 Dynamic compaction.
 Preloading
 Sand compaction piles and stone columns
 Soil stabilisation by use of admixtures
 Soil stabilisation by injection of suitable grouts
Tutorials:
There shall be related tutorials exercised in class and given as regular homework exercises. Tutorials can be as following for each specified chapters.
 Introduction (0.5 hour): Theory; definition and concept type questions.
 Soil Exploration (2.0 hours) : Theory; definition, numerical examples types of questions.
 Lateral Earth Pressure Theories and Retaining Walls (3.0 hours) : Concept type; practical examples and numerical type questions. :: There can be tutorials for each subsection
 Arching in Soils and Braced Cuts (1.0 hours) : Definition type; Practical example type and numerical type questions
 Flexible Retaining Structures and Coffer Dams (1.0 hour) : Definition type; Practical example type and numerical type questions.
 Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Shallow Foundations (2.5 hours): Concept type; definition type; Practical example type numerical examples type with diagrams questions. :: There can be tutorials for each subsection.
 Mat Foundations (1.0 hour) : Concept type; definition type; Practical example type questions. :: There can be tutorials for each subsection.
 Pile Foundations (2.0 hour) : Definition type; numerical examples type questions. Practical example type questions. :: There can be tutorials for each subsection.
 Well Foundations (1.0 hours) : Concept type; definition type; numerical examples and Practical type questions. :: There can be tutorials for each subsection.
 Foundations Soil Improvements (1.0 hours) : Concept type; definition type and Practical type questions. :: There can be tutorials for each subsection.
Laboratories
Field tests on penetration test.
One observation tour of a site investigation projects and each student should prepare a brief report on the basis of prescribed dataformat.
References
 “Foundation Analysis and Design” Joseph E.Bowels. McGrawHill International Editions, Fifth Edition, 1997
 “Principles of Foundation Engineering” Braja M. Das, Fifth Edition, 2003. Thomson/Brookscole
 “Basic and Applied soil mechanics “Gopal Ranjan and ASR Rao, Second Edition New Age International publishers,2000
 “Soil mechanics and Foundation Engineering” K. R. Arora Standard Publisher Distribution 1997
 “A Text Book of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in SI units “V.N.S. Murthy UBS Publishers Distributors Ltd.Fourth Edition 1993.
 ”A Text Book of Foundation Engineering”, Dr. R.K.Poudel and R.Neupane, 1st Edition, 2006.
 “Pile Foundation Analysis and Design” H.G.Poulos and E.H.Davis, John Wiley and Sons, 1980
Evaluation Scheme:
The questions will cover all the chapters in the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:
Chapter 
Hours 
Mark Distribution* 
1. 
1 
2 
2. 
6 
12 
3. 
10 
16 
4. 
3 
4 
5. 
3 
4 
6. 
6 
12 
7. 
3 
6 
8. 
6 
12 
9. 
4 
8 
10. 
3 
4 
Total 
45 
80 
*Note: There may be minor deviation in marks distribution.
