Fluid Mechanics
Course Objectives:
To provide basic concept of fluid mechanics and its application for solving basic engineering problems.
 Definition and Analysis method(2 hours)
 Definition and Properties of a Fluid
 Analysis Method
 System and Control Volume,
 Differential vs Integral Approach,
 Description – Lagrangian and Eulerian
 Fluid Statics(3 hours)
 Pressure Intensity at a Point
 Pressure Variations in a Fluid
 Unite of Pressure
 Absolute and Gage Pressure
 Manometers
 Forces on Plane and Curve Surface
 Buoyancy and Stability
 Kinematics of Fluid Flow(5 hours)
 Description of Fluid Flow: 1D, 2D and 3D Flow
 Circulation and Vorticity
 Rotational and Irrotational Flow
 Equation of Stream Line
 Velocity Potential
 Stream Function
 Acceleration of a Fluid Particle
 Basic Equations for Fluid Flow(8 hours)
 Continuity Equations
 Rectangular and Cylindrical Coordinate Systems
 Momentum Equation and Applications
 Elbow reactions, jet propulsions
 Fixed and moving vanes, hydraulic jump
 NavierStokes Equation: Newtonian Fluid
 Bernoulli’s Equation and Applications
 Flow from a tank, Venturi Flow, Syphon Flow
 Dimensional Analysis and Dynamic Similitude(3 hours)
 Units and Dimensions
 Nondimensionalizing basic Differential Equation and Dimensionless Numbers
 Formation of Dimensionless Equations by Buckingham's Method
 Dynamic Similitude Model Studies
 Incomplete Similarities
 Viscous Effects(10 hours)
 One Dimensional Laminar Flow; Relationship between shear stress and velocity gradient
 Laminar Flow Between Parallel Plates
 Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes; Reynolds number, velocity profile
 Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow; Flow over flat plates, drag on immersed bodies
 Frictional Resistance to Flow in Pipes; DarceyWeisbach equation, friction factor Use of Moody diagram, head loss in pipe flow
 Head Losses; In bends, joint expansions, valves Loss coefficients
 Flow Measurement(6 hours)
 Measurement of Static Pressure Intensity
 Measurement of Velocity; Pitot tube, Pitotstatic tube
 Restriction Flow Meters: Orifice Plate, Flow nozzles, Venturi, Laminar Flow Elements
 Linear Flow meters
 Weir and Notches
 Flow visualization
 Flow Measurement(5 hours)
 Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines Systems including reservoirs, pumps and turbines
 Pipe Flow Networks Series and parallel combinations
 Introduction to Compressible Flow (3 hours)
References:
 Fox, R. W, McDonald, A. T., Pritchard, P. J., Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, John Wiley.
 Douglas, J. F, Gasiorek, J. M., Swaffield, J. A., Fluid Mechanics, Pearson Education.
 Frank M. White, Fluid Mechanics, McGrawHill
 Kumar, D. S., Fluid Mechanics, S. K. Katarai and Sons
Practical:
 Properties of Fluid and Hydrostatics
 Measurement of Fluid viscosity and density
 Buoyancy forces, Center of pressure, stability of floating objects
 Demonstration of the Energy and Momentum Equations
 Pressure distribution for flow through a Venturi
 Force developed by a steady impinging jet flow
 Fluid flow in Piping
 Laminar and turbulent flow, friction losses in liquid flow
 Velocity distribution in air duct
 Calibration of Flow; Orifice, Venturi, Weir
 Drag on immersed bodies, measurement of lift and drag force on objects of different shapes
 The Hydraulic Jumps, relating measured jump parameters to Froude number, momentum, continuity and energy equations.
Evaluation Scheme:
The questions will cover all the chapters of the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:
Chapters 
Hours 
Mark distribution * 
1 
2 
5 
2 
3 
5 
3 
5 
10 
4 
8 
15 
5 
3 
5 
6 
10 
15 
7 
6 
10 
8 
5 
10 
9 
3 
5 
Total 
45 
80 
*Note: There may be minor deviation in marks distribution.
