##### Fluid Mechanics

Course Objectives:
To provide basic concept of fluid mechanics and its application for solving basic engineering problems.

1. Definition and Analysis method(2 hours)
1. Definition and Properties of a Fluid
2. Analysis Method
1. System and Control Volume,
2. Differential vs Integral Approach,
3. Description – Lagrangian and Eulerian

2. Fluid Statics(3 hours)
1. Pressure Intensity at a Point
2. Pressure Variations in a Fluid
3. Unite of Pressure
4. Absolute and Gage Pressure
5. Manometers
6. Forces on Plane and Curve Surface
7. Buoyancy and Stability

3. Kinematics of Fluid Flow(5 hours)
1. Description of Fluid Flow: 1D, 2D and 3D Flow
2. Circulation and Vorticity
3. Rotational and Irrotational Flow
4. Equation of Stream Line
5. Velocity Potential
6. Stream Function
7. Acceleration of a Fluid Particle

4. Basic Equations for Fluid Flow(8 hours)
1. Continuity Equations
1. Rectangular and Cylindrical Coordinate Systems
2. Momentum Equation and Applications
1. Elbow reactions, jet propulsions
2. Fixed and moving vanes, hydraulic jump
3. Navier-Stokes Equation: Newtonian Fluid
4. Bernoulli’s Equation and Applications
1. Flow from a tank, Venturi Flow, Syphon Flow

5. Dimensional Analysis and Dynamic Similitude(3 hours)
1. Units and Dimensions
2. Nondimensionalizing basic Differential Equation and Dimensionless Numbers
3. Formation of Dimensionless Equations by Buckingham's Method
4. Dynamic Similitude Model Studies
5. Incomplete Similarities

6. Viscous Effects(10 hours)
1. One Dimensional Laminar Flow; Relationship between shear stress and velocity gradient
2. Laminar Flow Between Parallel Plates
3. Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes; Reynolds number, velocity profile
4. Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow; Flow over flat plates, drag on immersed bodies
5. Frictional Resistance to Flow in Pipes; Darcey-Weisbach equation, friction factor Use of Moody diagram, head loss in pipe flow
6. Head Losses; In bends, joint expansions, valves Loss coefficients

7. Flow Measurement(6 hours)
1. Measurement of Static Pressure Intensity
2. Measurement of Velocity; Pitot tube, Pitot-static tube
3. Restriction Flow Meters: Orifice Plate, Flow nozzles, Venturi, Laminar Flow Elements
4. Linear Flow meters
5. Weir and Notches
6. Flow visualization

8. Flow Measurement(5 hours)
1. Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines Systems including reservoirs, pumps and turbines
2. Pipe Flow Networks Series and parallel combinations

9. Introduction to Compressible Flow (3 hours)

References:

1. Fox, R. W, McDonald, A. T., Pritchard, P. J., Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, John Wiley.
2. Douglas, J. F, Gasiorek, J. M., Swaffield, J. A., Fluid Mechanics, Pearson Education.
3. Frank M. White, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill
4. Kumar, D. S., Fluid Mechanics, S. K. Katarai and Sons

Practical:

1. Properties of Fluid and Hydrostatics
1.  Measurement of Fluid viscosity and density
2. Buoyancy forces, Center of pressure, stability of floating objects
2. Demonstration of the Energy and Momentum Equations
1. Pressure distribution for flow through a Venturi
2. Force developed by a steady impinging jet flow
3. Fluid flow in Piping
1. Laminar and turbulent flow, friction losses in liquid flow
2. Velocity distribution in air duct
4. Calibration of Flow; Orifice, Venturi, Weir
5. Drag on immersed bodies, measurement of lift and drag force on objects of different shapes
6. The Hydraulic Jumps, relating measured jump parameters to Froude number, momentum, continuity and energy equations.

Evaluation Scheme:
The questions will cover all the chapters of the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:

 Chapters Hours Mark distribution * 1 2 5 2 3 5 3 5 10 4 8 15 5 3 5 6 10 15 7 6 10 8 5 10 9 3 5 Total 45 80

*Note: There may be minor deviation in marks distribution.