Fluid Mechanics and Machine

Course objectives
The objective of this course is to develop knowledge about the fluid properties, study of motion of fluid and related theory. It further focuses on the working principle of the fluid machines and basics of gas dynamics. After the completion of this course student will have knowledge on the fluid behavior at rest and motion including different fluid machines.

1. Fluid properties and fluid statics (6 hours)
1. Introduction and classification of fluid: Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids
2. Fluid properties: density, surface tension, vapour pressure, cohesion and adhesion
3. Compressibility and cavitation
4. Pascal’s law of pressure
5. Pressure variation in a static fluid
6. Pressure measurements using manometers
7. Centre of pressure, buoyancy and stability
8. Forces on planes and curved surfaces

2. Fluid kinematics (2 hours)
1. Description of fluid flow: one, two and three dimensional flow
2. Circulation and vorticity
3. Rotational and irrotational flow
4. Equation of stream line
5. Velocity potential and stream function

3. Basic Equation for fluid flow (8 hours)
1. Types of flow: turbulent and laminar flow, steady and unsteady flow
2. Continuity equation for 3D rectangular co-ordinate system
3. Bernoulli’s equation and application: flow from a tank, venture flow, siphon flow
4. Momentum equation and application: elbow, jet propulsion

4. Viscous effects (6 hours)
1. One dimensional laminar flow, relationship between shear stress and velocity gradient
2. Laminar flow between parallel plates
3. Laminar flow in circular tubes; Reynold’s number, velocity profile
4. Laminar and turbulent boundary layer flow, flow over flat plate, drag and lift forces on immerged bodies
5. Frictional resistance to a flow in pipes: Darcey-Weisbach equation, friction factor, use of Moody diagram, major head loss in pipe flow
6. Minor head losses: at entrance and exit, pipe fittings losses, expansion and contraction losses, obstruction losses

5. Flow measurement and pipe flow network (4 hours)
1. Hydraulic and energy grade lines including reservoirs, pumps and turbines
2. Flow measurement: restriction and linear flow meters
3. Pipe flow networks: series and parallel combinations

6. Dimensional analysis (4 hours)
1. Non-dimensional numbers and similarities law
2. Buckingham’s π theorem
3. Model studies

7. Hydraulic turbines (5 hours)
1. Introduction and classification of turbo machines
2. Hydroelectric plants: major components and their functions
3. Hydraulic turbine: classification and working principles of turbines (Pelton, Francis, cross-flow), components and their functions
4. Selection and characteristic curves of hydraulic turbines

8. Pumps (6 hours)
1. Introduction and classification of pumps
2. Centrifugal pump: working principle, components and characteristics
3. Reciprocating pump: working principle, components and characteristics
4. Basics of gear and vane pump
5. Pump as turbine (PAT)

9. Gas dynamics (4 hours)
1. Compressible flow: subsonic and supersonic flows
2. Stagnation state and properties, compressible energy equation
3. Mach number, Mach angle and Mach cone
4. Joukowski transformation and airfoil theory
5. Shock wave classification and governing equations, Rankine- Hugonout, and Prandtl

Practical

1. Measurement of fluid viscosity and density
2. Determination of center of pressure of a quadrant
3. Verification of Bernoulli’s principle.
4. Visualization of fluid flow (Laminar & Turbulent)
5. Determination of discharge coefficient of a venturimeter
6. Determination of force due to impact of jet.
7. Performance of centrifugal and reciprocating pumps.
8. Performance of Pelton, Francis and cross flow turbines.

References

1. Streeter, Fluid Mechanics- Mc Graw Hill latest edition 1997
2. Fox, R. W, McDonald, A. T., Pritchard, P. J., Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, John Wiley.
3. Dr. J. Lal. , Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics Metropolitan Book Co. Pvt. Ltd.
4. Dr. R.K. Bansal, A text books of Fluid mechanics and Hydraulic Machines Laxmi Publication (P) Ltd. New Delhi, 2000
5. R.K Rajput, A text book of Hydraulic Machine, S. Chandand Company Ltd. India
6. Dr. P.N. Modi and Dr. M. Sethi, Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics, Standard Book house
7. Kumar, D. S., Fluid Mechanics, S. K. Katarai and Sons
8. Gas dynamics

Evaluation scheme
The questions will cover all the chapters of the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:

 Chapter Marks* 1 & 2 16 3 16 4 & 5 16 6 & 7 16 8 & 9 16 Total 80

*Note: There may be minor deviation in mark distribution