Engine Combustion and Pollution Control

Course objective
At the end of the course, the student shall be able to understand

  1. Actual cycle process and its calculation
  2. Various performance characteristics
  3. Nature of air pollutants produced by automobile vehicles and its effect on health and environment
  4. Methods of emission control, emission control devices
  1. Fuels and its chemical reaction in combustion (5 hours)
    1. Fuel structure and composition
    2. Properties of fuel
    3. Chemical reactions in fuel combustion
    4. Combustible mixture and products of combustion
    5. Heating value of fuel and mixture
    6. Heat capacity of charge and combustion products

  2. Intake and compression in engines (4 hours)
    1. Differences in theoretical and actual cycles
    2. Intake
      1. Admission parameters
      2. Intake coefficient
      3. Factors affecting intake coefficient
    3. Compression
      1. Pressure and temperature at the end of compression
      2. Effect of various parameters on combustion

  3. Combustion in SI engines (5 hours)
    1. Mixture formation
    2. Ignition limits
    3. Combustion: chemistry, types, stages and flame propagation
    4. Rate of pressure rise and phases of combustion
    5. Effect of operating variables on: process of combustion, flame propagation, ignition lag
    6. Auto ignition and chemical reaction
    7. Detonation: phenomenon, knocking, measurements, intensity, effect of engine variables and engine design
    8. Factors governing combustion
    9. Combustion chamber and its types

  4. Combustion in CI engines(4 hours)
    1. Direct and indirect combustion chamber
    2. Importance of air motion swirl, squish and turbulence-swirl ratio
    3. Fuel air mixing
    4. Stages of combustion
    5. Delay period and operating variables affecting delay period
    6. Detonation: phenomenon, knocking, measurements, intensity, effect of engine variables and engine design
    7. Factors governing combustion
    8. Combustion chamber design

  5. Expansion and exhaust (2 hours)
    1. Expansion
    2. Effect of various parameters on polytropic expansion
    3. Exhaust

  6. Characteristics of motor vehicle engine(6 hours)
    1. Indicated characteristics
    2. Brake characteristics
    3. Effect of various operating variables on indicated and brake characteristics
    4. Speed characteristics
    5. Load characteristics
    6. Adjustment characteristics
    7. Special characteristics

  7. Vehicular emission(6 hours)
    1. Sources of pollutants: exhaust gases, crankcase gas and fuel vapour
    2. Composition of exhaust gases
    3. Pollutant formation
    4. Effect of composition and structure of fuels on emission
    5. Effect of air-fuel mixture, operating variables, combustion chamber design, driving conditions and drivability, traffic management on emission
    6. Effect of fuels and exhaust gases on human health and environment

  8. Methods of exhaust gas analysis (5 hours)
    1. Colourimeter
    2. Gas chromatograph
    3. Smoke meter
    4. Particulate measurement
    5. Odor and aldehyde emission
    6. Exhaust gas analyzer
    7. Flame ionization detectors
    8. Chemiluminescence NOx analyzer
    9. Non dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer

  9. Methods of emissions control(6 hours)
    1. Emission standard and emission control norms, euro emission standards
    2. Improving fuel system and ignition system of engines
    3. Use of alternative fuels and additives
    4. Use of neutralizer (flame, liquid and catalytic) in the exhaust system
    5. Emission control system: exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), evaporative emission control (EVAP), positive crankcase ventilation (PCV), air injection system (AIS)
    6. Closed loop control
    7. Change in air fuel ratio and ignition timing

  10. Vehicular noise pollution(2 hours)
    1. Sound level
    2. Sources, effects and control methods
    3. Technical norms and standards


  1. Measurement of indicated and brake characteristics
  2. Measurement of speed and load characteristics
  3. Sound level measurement
  4. Tailpipe emission testing
  5. Assignments on calculation of actual cycle of SI and CI engines


  1. P. L. Ballaney, Internal combustion engines, Khanna Publishers, Delhi.
  2. V. Arkhangelsky, M. Khovakh, Y. Stepanov, V. Trusov, M. Vikhert, A. Voinov, Motor vehicle engines, Mir publishers, Moscow.

Evaluation scheme
The questions will cover all the chapters of the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:



1 & 2


3 & 4


5 & 6


7 & 8


9 & 10




*Note: There may be minor deviation in mark distribution

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