Electrical Engineering Material
Course objectives:
To provide a basic understanding of the different materials used in electrical and electronics engineering.
 Theory of Metals(8 hours)
 Elementary Quantum mechanical ideas: Wave Particle Duality, Wave function, schrodinger’s equation, operator notation, expected value
 Infinite Potential Well: A confined electron.
 Finite Potential Barrier: Tunneling Phenomenon
 Free electron theory of metals: Electron in a linear solid, Fermi energy, Degenerate states, Number of States, Density of States, Population Density
 FermiDirac Distribution Function
 Thermionic Emission: Richardson’s Equation, Schottky Effect
 Contact Potential: Fermi level at Equilibrium
 Free Electron Theory of Conduction in metal(6 hours)
 Crystalline structure: Simple cubic structure, Body centered cubic, Face centered cubic
 Band Theory of Solids
 Effective mass of Electron
 Thermal Velocity of Electron at equilibrium
 Electron mobility, conductivity and resistivity
 Dielectric materials(6 hours)
 Matter polarization and Relative permittivity: Relative permittivity, Dipole moment, Polarization vector, Local field, ClausiusMossotti equation
 Types of Polarization: Electronic polarization, Ionic polarization, Orientational polarization, Interfacial polarization
 Dielectric losses: Frequency dependence
 Dielectric breakdown in solids
 Ferroelectricity and Piezoelectricity
 Magnetic Materials(6 hours)
 Magnetic material classification: Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, Ferromagnetism, Antiferromagnetism, Ferrimagnetism
 Magnetic Domains: Domain structure, Domain Wall motion, Hysteresis loop, Eddy current losses, Demagnetization
 Soft magnetic materials: Examples and uses
 Hard magnetic materials: Examples and uses
 Superconductivity(5 hours)
 Zero Resistance and the Meissner effect
 Type I and Type II superconductors
 Critical current density
 Semiconductors(14 hours)
 Intrinsic semiconductors: Silicon crystal, Energy band diagram, Conduction in semiconductors, Electrons and Hole concentration
 Extrinsic semiconductors: ntype doping, ptype doping, compensation doping
 Introduction to GaAs semiconductor
 Temperature dependence of Conductivity: Carrier concentration temperature dependence, Drift mobility temperature and Impurity dependence, Conductivity temperature dependence, Degenerate and nondegenerate semiconductors
 Diffusion on semiconductor: Einstein's Relationship
 Direct and indirect generation and recombination
 Pn junction: Forward biased, reverse biased pnjunction.
References:
 Bhadra Prasad Pokharel and Nava Raj Karki,"Electrical Engineering Materials",Sigma offset Press,Kamaladi, Kathmandu, Nepal,2004.
 R.C. Jaeger,”Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication Volume IV”, Addison Wesley publishing Company,Inc., 1988.
 Kasap.S.O, Principles of electrical engineering materials and devices, McGraw Hill, NewYork,2000.
 R.A.Colcaser and S.DiehlNagle,”Materials and Devices for Electrical Engineers and Physicists,McGrawHill, New York, 1985.
Evaluation Scheme:
The questions will cover all the chapters of the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below
Chapters 
Hours 
Marks distribution* 
Theory 
Numerical 
1 
8 
12 
8 
4 
2 
6 
10 
6 
4 
3 
6 
10 
10 
X 
4 
6 
10 
10 
X 
5 
5 
8 
8 
X 
6 
14 
30 
18 
12 
Total 
45 
80 
60 
20 
*Note: There may be a minor deviation in marks distribution
