APPLIED PHOTOVOLTAIC ENGINEERING
 The sun and the solar spectrum (4 hours)
 Electromagnetic spectrum
 Effects of Earth atmosphere, orbit and rotation on insolation
 Estimation and measurement of solar radiation
 Calculation of energy available in a place; radiation on inclined and horizontal plane, yearly energy available in place
 Models and Software for assessing the solar energy
 Semiconductors for photovoltaics (4 hours)
 p‐n junction for solar cell, fundamental concept; I‐V and P‐V characteristics
 Model of PV cells; short circuit current, open circuit voltage, four parameter model, equivalent circuit, effect of temperature
 Fill factor, efficiency series
 Cell to panel, effect of shading and mitigation
 Testing of PV panel
 Model and simulation
 Modern PV cell technology (4 hours)
 Thin film technology
 Polycrystalline silicon
 Thin film solar cell
 Epitaxial films including GaAs modern cell
 Solar panel standards
 Power electronics and control of photovoltaic system (8 hours)
 Dc‐Dc converter ( buck, boost, isolating converter
 Inverter topology
 Single stage and two stage power electronics configuration
 Control of dc‐dc converters :Maximum power point tracking techniques
 Control of Inverters
 Isolated operation
 Grid connected operation
 Isolated PV systems (6 hours)
 Storage devices: different type of batteries
 Charge controller; principle and circuit diagram
 UPS system with PV: back to back converter topology, charging scheme of UPS by PV and grid, setting priority
 Water pumping
 Grid Connected PV system (8 hours)
 Phase, frequency and voltage matching
 Grounding
 Protection
 Transient response
 Power Flow analysis with PV units;
 Short Circuit analysis with PV units;
 Voltage profile
 Guideline for PV integration; penetration level
 Interconnection standards, codes and practices
 IEEE
 IEC
 UL
 Voltage ride through requirements
 others
 Design of PV system (4 hours)
 Isolated PV system for residence
 Grid connected PV system
 Solar water pump
 Socio‐economic aspects (4 hours)
 Economic assessment of PV power system (Payback period, Total Ownership cost ‐TOC, Present worth factor‐PWF)
 Environmental Impact analysis (EIA) and safety of PV system
 Production, recycling and disposal of PV system ( PV panel and batteries)
 Large scale integration of PV into power grid
Practical Works (Experiment and Simulation)
 Study of characteristics of PV cell and module
 Plotting of I‐V, P‐V curve on different insolation
 Determination of parameters of PV panel: short circuit current, open circuit voltage, series and shunt resistance
 Design and simulation of stand‐alone photovoltaic system: use suitable numerical tools (such as Maltlab Simulink, PSCAD)
 Design and simulation of grid connected PV system: use suitable numerical tools (such as Maltlab Simulink, PSCAD)
 Case study: Study of large scale PV system (one from world and Nepal each)
 Field visit
Reference:
 Photovoltaic system analysis and design, AK Mukharji, PHI 2011.
 Kalogirou, S. A. Solar Energy Engineering: Processes and Systems, Academic Press, 2009, ISBN‐10: 0123745012
 Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems, G Masters, Wiley Publication 2004.
 Messenger, R. A., Ventre, J., Photovoltaic Systems Engineering, 2nd ed., CRC Press, 2003, ISBN‐10: 0849317932
 Foster, R.; Ghassemi, M.; Cota, A.; Solar Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, CRC Press, 2009, ISBN‐10: 1420075667
