ME 72502 

Course Objectives:

To understand the properties of air and the psychometric processes that takes place in various Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems and to become familiar with Vapor compression, Vapor absorption and Air refrigeration and Air Conditioning systems. Also to understand the basic issues involved with Human comfort with respect to thermal surroundings and to understand the basic structure, and operation of major components used in HVAC systems. To develop understanding of HVAC system design principles.

  1. Basic Refrigeration systems review:
    (5 hours)
    1. Vapor compression cycle fundamentals
    2. Vapor absorption system.
    3. Air refrigeration system
  2. Revision of Psychrometrics, and Psychrometric Processes
    (6 hours)
    1. Properties of Air
    2. Psychrometric relationships
    3. Adiabatic Saturation Processes
    4. Psychrometer, Anemometer
    5. Psychrometric Chart
    6. Sensible Heating and Cooling.
    7. Cooling and Dehumidification
    8. Adiabatic humidification
    9. Adiabatic Chemical Dehumidification
    10. Humidification by Steam Injection
    11. Heating and Dehumidification
    12. Mixing of Air Streams
    13. Numerical examples on Psychrometric processes involving different processes and/or their combinations
  3. Human comfort and Air Conditioning requirements
    (2 hours)
    1. Thermodynamics of Human body
    2. Effective Temperature
    3. Factors governing Effective Temperature
    4. Acceptable Indoor Air quality
  4. Vapor Compression Air Conditioning Systems
    (6 hours)
    1. Construction uses and operations of the following Components
      1. Different types of Compressors
      2. Evaporators
      3. Condensers
      4. Expansion devices
      5. Pressure cutouts
      6. Thermostats
      7. Humidistat
      8. Cooling towers
      9. Flow control valves
    2. Air cooled air conditioning machines including automobile air conditioning system
    3. Water cooled air conditioning systems
    4. Central air conditioning system with air cooled chiller, AHUs and FCUs
    5. Water balancing
    6. Direct expansion (DX) systems
    7. Principles of VRV system
    8. Variable Refrigerant Volume type of Air Conditioning system
      1. Construction and operation of VRV system
      2. Different types of Indoor units and their application
  5. Solar Heating system fundamentals
    (6 hours)
    1. Passive solar systems
    2. Solar Floor Heating Systems
    3. Characteristics of solar Floor Heating Systems
  6. Air Conveying Systems & Ventilation
    (6 hours)
    1. Fans, and types of Fans; Centrifugal, Axial, Inline
    2. Fan laws and velocity triangles for moving blades of centrifugal fans
    3. Fan and System characteristics
    4. Related Numerical examples
    5. Ducts and related standards
    6. Diffusers, Grills
    7. Air Filters
  7. Measuring instruments
    (4 hours)
    1. Air flow measurement instruments
    2. Temperature measuring instruments
    3. Pressure measurement instruments
    4. Relative humidity measurement instruments
  8. Introduction to Air Conditioning System Design
    (10 hours)
    1. Cooling load determination & CLTD method
    2. Heating load determination
    3. Plotting of Air Conditioning processes in Psychometric chart and related numerical examples


  1. Use of different types of temperature measuring equipment, Use of Sling Psychrometer, Use of Anemometer and Measurement of air flow and friction loss in ducts of different shapes
  2. Study of Comfort Air Conditioning system with the help of the simulator and determination of the coefficient of Performance
  3. Study automobile air conditioning system
  4. Site visits where HVAC systems are preferably in the process of installation or installed
  5. Case Study


  1. C. K. Rajput, “A Text Book of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning”, S. K Kataria & Sons publication, New Delhi, India.
  2. S. C. Arora & S. Domkundwar, “A Course in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning”, Dhanpar Rai & Sons Publication, New Delhi, India.
  3. Andrew D. Althouse, Carl H. Thrnouist, and Alfred F. Bracciano, “Modern Refrigeration and Air Conditioning”, Galgotia Publication, New Delhi, India.
  4. Carrier Air Conditioning Company, “Handbook of Air Conditioning System Design”.
  5. C. P. Arora, “Refrigeration and Air Conditioning”, Tata McGraw Hill, India.,
  6. “ASHRAE Handbooks on Fundamentals and HVAC Applications”, Americal Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Tullie Circle, Atlanta, USA

Evaluation Scheme:

The questions will cover all the chapters in the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:

Unit Chapter Topics Marks*
1 1 & 4 all 16
2 1 & 5 all 16
3 2 & 3 all 16
4 6 & 7 all 16
5 8 all 16
Total 80

*There could be minor deviation in mark distribution.

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