ME 72503 

Course Objectives:

To know different types of gaseous biofuels resources, production technologies, and applications and system design of major gaseous biofuel plants. To know operation and maintenance of major gaseous biofuel plants and scope and application of gaseous biofuel in Nepal.

  1. Introduction of gaseous biofuel
    (9 hours)
    1. Overview of different types of gaseous bio-energy (Pyrolytic gas, CH4, H2, C2H6, Producer gas, Land fill gas etc.)
    2. Resources of gaseous biofuel in Nepal
    3. Scope and application of gaseous biofuel in Nepal
    4. Gaseous biofuel development agencies and their activities in Nepal
    5. Review of relevant gaseous biofuel policy of Nepal and its limitations
  2. Biogas
    (9 hours)
    1. Composition and characteristics of biogas
    2. Metabolic pathway of biogas
    3. Biochemical and physical continents of substrate , biogas and effluent
    4. Loading rate, retention time, dilution and consistency of input, pH value, temperature, C/N ratio, toxicity for biogas production
    5. Necessary condition for anaerobic digestion
    6. Scope of biogas
    7. Limitations of GGC 2047 model
    8. Government subsidy policy and its limitations
    9. Advantages and limitations of biogas
  3. Design and construction of biogas plant
    ( 9 hours)
    1. Configuration of biogas plant
    2. Types of digester
    3. Different parts of biogas plant
    4. Site selection and construction detail
    5. Different size and model of biogas plant
    6. Quality control during construction
    7. Design of plant for urban area in small scale with kitchen waste as well as toilet attached
    8. Design of commercial bio-gas plant
    9. Low temperature biogas plant
  4. Management and socio economic aspect
    (9 hours)
    1. Operation and maintenance of biogas plant
      1. Potential problems during operation of biogas plant
      2. Maintenance of biogas plant
      3. Users Training and After sales Services
      4. Biogas production methods at winter season
    2. Economic, social and environmental aspect of biogas
      1. Biogas installation cost and financial viability (Discounted payback and IRR)
      2. Loan arrangement and repayment condition
      3. Slurry utilization
      4. Biogas in relation to health and sanitation
      5. Biogas in relation to local environment
      6. Carbon trade
  5. Biohydrogen
    (4 hours )
    1. Basics of biohydrogen production
      1. Dark and photo fermentation
      2. Metabolic process
    2. Biohydrogen reactor
    3. Effect of process parameters including pH, temperature, hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate, volatile fatty acids
    4. Optimization of biohydrogen production
  6. Thermo chemical gasification of biomass
    (5 hours )
    1. Chemistry of biomass gasification
    2. Type of gassifier and their working principle
    3. Thermal and power applications of producer gas


  1. Determination of efficiency of biogas stove and comparison with gas stove
  2. Complete design, financial and economic analysis of small biogas plant
  3. Site visit to observe large biogas plant in different stage of construction and operation and prepare detail feasibility study report


  1. Biomass Forum: A journal published by BORDA, Germany
  2. FAO / CMS, “Biogas Technology: A Training Manual for Extension. Prepared for FAO by consolidated Management Services”, Nepal (p) Ltd.
  3. Godfrey, B, “Renewable Energy Power for a Sustainable Future”, Oxford University press.
  4. Howes, M. and Endagama, P, “Farmers, Forests and Fuel”, Intermediate Technology Publications.
  5. Hurst, C and Barnrtt, A, “ The Energy Dimension – A Practical Guide to Energy in Rural Development Programmes”, Intermediate Technology Publications.
  6. IUCN, “EIA of the Bara Forest Management Plan”, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  7. J. Twidell and T. Weir, “Renewable Energy Resources”, Taylor and Francis.
  8. Karki A.B. and Dixit, K, “Biogas Fieldbook”, Sahayogi Prakashan, Tripureshwar, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  9. Martian, A, “Introduction to Soil Microbiology”, John Wiley & Sons. New York.
  10. Sathianathan, M. A, “Biogas: Achievement and challenges”, AVARD, New Delhi.
  11. “Updated Guidebook on Biogas Development Series (1984) No. 27”, United Nations, New York, USA.
  12. Werner U, Stohr U and Hees N, “Biogas Plants in Animal Husbandry”, GATE / GTZ, Germany.

Evaluation Scheme:

The questions will cover all the chapters in the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:

Unit Chapter Topics Marks*
1 1 all 16
2 2 all 16
3 3 all 16
4 4 all 16
5 5 & 6 all 16
Total 80

*There could be minor deviation in mark distribution.

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