ENERGY ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
To study planning and management aspects of electrical energy supply and to gain some familiarity with demand characteristics and load forecasting.
- Power utilities and power sector development (9 hours)
- Functional block model
- Classifications: Centralized government owned, Locally owned, private/public, foreign investor owned
- Power sector development in Nepal: History, growth of government and private utilities, achievements, various utilities in existence and their organization
- Nepalese Power industry Regulatory framework: Company act, Industrial enterprises act, Hydropower development policy, Water resource act and regulation, Electricity act and regulation, Foreign investment and technology transfer act, Factory act
- Power sector restructuring : Goals, constraints, pre‐requisites and different models.
- Financial Analysis and project funding (9 hours)
- Basic accounting principles: Cash basis and Accrual basis of accounting,
- Depreciation: straight line method, declining balance method and sum of years digit method, inflation and depression
- Investment decisions: Interest and discount rates, inflation and depression, Present worth, Future worth, NPV, B/C ratio, IRR, Payback period , decision criteria
- Electric utility funding requirements: capital requirement, operating requirement, Cash flow
- Sources of project funding: Public finance, corporate finance and project finance
- Electrical load forecasting (9 hours)
- Load curves and load factor, demand factor, diversity factor, coincidence factor
- Load and their characteristics : Domestic, industrial, commercial, non commercial, transport, irrigation etc.
- Objectives and classification of load forecasting
- Tools and approaches
- Errors and uncertainties
- A accuracy and error analysis based on time series approach
- Forecasting methods: mean and single moving average method, mathematical models: Linear , Parabolic and Exponential method of extrapolation and the method of survey, SIMCRED equation
- Power system security and reliability (9 hours)
- Security definitions
- Security measures
- Maintaining reserves: spinning reserve, scheduled or offline reserve, static reserve, Sources of reserves
- Physical constrains to system security
- Effects of system diversity, system interconnection, import/export.
- Approaches to reliability, Reliability and quality, Repairable and non repairable components, The bathtub curve, Reliability function, Properties of reliability, Reliability indices: Mean Time to Failure, Mean Time Between Failures, Availability/Unavailability, Forced outage rate, Loss of Load Probability, Loss of Load Expectation
- System reliability models: Series system, parallel system, Series parallel system, Parallel series system, Non series parallel system
- Cost of reliability and unreliability.
- Unit Commitment and Economic load dispatch of generating units
- Understanding Unit commitment problem, solution approaches, Priority list scheme, Unit commitment schedule for a particular load curve.
- Elements of a constrained optimization problem, LaGrange theorem as a tool to solve optimization problem
- Characteristics of generating units (thermal and hydro): Incremental fuel cost, incremental cost of production
- Economic dispatch problem of thermal units excluding and including transmission losses, Graphical solution, Penalty factor and its physical insight, Use of penalty factor in power transaction
- Economic dispatch of energy and VARs as an operational problems: Problems in new loading conditions, effect of power factor, VAR compensation techniques
- Presentation on Nepalese power utilities and regulatory environments
- Solving economic dispatch problem of hydro units for loss minimization
- Exploring demand supply situation of certain sector of the Nepalese power system and forecast the power and energy demand
- Reliability evaluation ( calculating LOLP) of a certain load center fed by different hydro units in Nepalese system
- Exploring the security situation of a typical power system through N‐1 contingency criteria
- Preparing unit commitment schedule for a particular load centre fed by different hydro unit in Nepalese system
- Robert N Anthony and James S Reece: Management Accounting Principles
- Allen J Wood and Bruce W Woolenberg: Power Generation Operation and Control
- C. L. Wadhwa: Electrical Power Systems, Willey Eastern Limited
- V. N. A. Naikan: Reliability Engineering and Life Testing, Printice Hall of India Ltd.
- S. Makridakis, S.C. Wheelwright, V.E. Mc Gee: Forecasting Methods and Applications
- I.G. Nagarath and D.P. Kothari: Power System Engineering, Tata Mc Grawhill Publishing Company