Construction Equipment

Course objectives
To be familiar with the types, repair and maintenance and management of heavy equipment.

  1. Hydraulic system(6 hours)
    1. Basic principle of hydraulics
    2. Elements of hydraulic system: hydraulic power pack, control valve and actuators
    3. Types of hydraulic system: open center system, closed center system
    4. Hydraulic oil: functions, storage, types, properties, specifications and requirements
    5. Pumps: types and working principle
    6. Valves: types and working principle
    7. Actuators: purpose, types and working principle
    8. Auxiliaries: accumulator, filter, reservoir, oil cooler, hose pipe, tubes and couplers, seals and fluids

  2. Pneumatic system(3 hours)
    1. Basic principle of pneumatics
    2. Compressed air: functions, properties and preparation
    3. Elements of pneumatic system: compressor, control valve and actuators
    4. Compressor: types and working principle
    5. Valves: types and working principle
    6. Actuators: purpose, types and working principle
    7. Auxiliaries: accumulator, filter, lubricator, air cooler, receiver, pipe

  3. Introduction to heavy equipment(9 hours)
    1. Introduction
    2. Classification of heavy equipment based on: applications, truck type, crawl and wheel type
    3. Application of heavy equipment
    4. Terminologies used in heavy equipment
    5. Construction equipment: introduction, construction, types, applications and general specifications of dozer, loader, excavator, grader, road roller, asphalt paving equipment, crane
    6. Farm tractor: layout, different types of implements, accessories and attachments, tractor trolley
    7. Special purpose vehicles: fork lift, fire brigade, dumper, tripper, truck

  4. Chassis components(9 hours)
    1. Hydraulic system
    2. Transmission system: clutches, mechanical transmission, hydraulic assist transmission, power shift transmission, hydrostatic drive, torque converters, differential, final drive, power take-offs, special drives
    3. Undercarriage: track chain, idler, sprocket, track rollers, tyres
    4. Implements and tools: blades, rippers, bucket

  5. Electronic components(3 hours)
    1. Functions and symbols of pressure sensor, pressure switch, proportional solenoid, pump and valve controller, engine controller

  6. Hydraulic and pneumatic circuit(6 hours)
    1. Pneumatic circuits: basic pneumatic circuit, impulse operation, speed control, pneumatic motor circuit, sequencing of motion, time delay circuits and their applications
    2. Hydraulic circuit: basic hydraulic circuit, impulse operation, speed control, hydraulic motor circuit, sequencing of motion, time delay circuits and their applications
    3. Maintenance and troubleshooting of hydraulic & pneumatic system

  7. Management of heavy equipment(9 hours)
    1. Safety inspections
    2. Special care and precautions
    3. Equipment policy
      1. Equipment acquisition: methods purchase, leasing, hiring
      2. Comparison between leasing and purchasing
      3. Estimation of owning and operating cost and hiring cost
      4. Analysis of equipment utilization and price variance
    4. Equipment procurement
      1. Marketing aspects of construction equipment (availability, dealers)
      2. Procurement methods and practices
      3. Commissioning of equipment


  1. Demonstration of hydraulic system
  2. Demonstration of pneumatic system
  3. Familiarization with hydraulic assisted transmission system
  4. Assignments on procurement of heavy equipment
  5. Repair and maintenance of heavy equipment


  1. Technical book, “Construction Machinery Training”, Instate, Imlambad
  2. Harris, F. and McCaffer, “Management of Construction Equipment”, Macmillan Education Ltd. London, UK.
  3. Erich J. Schulz, “Diesel Equipment I and II”, Mcgraw-Hill book co.
  4. Frank Harries, Ronald McCaffer, “Construction of Plant Excavating and Material Handling”, Granda Publishing.
  5. SAE Handbook Volume 4
  6. “Caterpillar performance Handbook”, Edition 33, Caterpillar Inc, Peoria, Illinois, USA.

Evaluation scheme
The questions will cover all the chapters of the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:



1 & 2






5 & 6






*Note: There may be minor deviation in mark distribution

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