Computational Techniques in Civil Engineering
Course Objective:
The knowledge of numerical solutions of various civil engineering problems is essential to the analysis and design of the structures. This course includes the fundamentals of computational techniques required for those problems which cannot be solved by manually and ordinary methods. It teaches the steps required to solve the equations using algorithms and computer programs.
 Introduction (4 hours)
 History of numerical computations of civil engineering problems
 Brief description of solution techniques
 Finite element method
 Finite difference method
 Boundary element method
 Discrete element method
 Smoothed particle hydrodynamics
 Review of programming methods: (C or FORTRAN or Matlab)
 Solutions of linear equations (6 hours)
 System of linear equations
 Banded matrices
 Data storage and memory optimization
 Conjugate gradient method
 Fourier Integral
 Discrete Fourier Transform
 Fast Fourier Transform
 Elasticity in solids (6 hours)
 Stress displacement relationship
 Stressstrain (constitutive) relations
 3D state of solid, Lame constants
 Plane stress and plane strain condition
 Axisymmetric stresses
 Equilibrium equations
 Finite element method (14 hours)
 Direct stiffness method
 Stiffness matrices for bar, truss and beam element matrices
 Transformation matrices for 2D and 3D cases and assembly
 Example of a truss
 Coordinate system  local, global, natural
 Interpolation functions
 Pascal triangle
 Polynomial function
 Lagragian element
 Hermite interpolation for beam element
 Serendipidity element
 Application in solid and frames
 Formulation of stiffness matrices for bars, truss, beams and area (triangle) elements
 Isoparametric formulation (linear displacement field only) – 2D triangle and quadrilateral
 Example of dam: Calculate stresses giving pressure loads using computer programs
 Example on wall: Calculate stresses giving vertical loads using computer programs
 Example on wall: Calculate stresses giving vertical loads using computer programs
 General introduction to pre and post processing
 Finite difference method (7 hours)
 Finite differences
 Explicit scheme and Implicit Scheme
 Governing equations of movement of fluid( Momemtum and continuity equations)
 Discretization of Kinematic wave Equation (linear and non linear)
 Order of accuracy of the scheme and its applications
 Numerical diffusion, dispersion and stability of scheme
 Applications of the schemes in hydraulic channel routing
 Implicit dynamic wave model
 Finite difference scheme for SaintVenant equations
 Method of Characteristics (4 hours)
 Introduction
 Characteristics
 Initial and boundary conditions
 Solution to unsteady flow in pipes
 Simulation of Ground water flow (4 hours)
 Steady state flow nets and finite difference grid
 Simulation of seepage under a dam
 One dimensional Implicit Model
 Application in riverGroundwater system
Tutorials:
There shall be related tutorials exercised in class and given as regular homework exercises.
 Introduction (2 hrs)
Theory, definition and concept type questions
Practical: Home work to make programs in C or FORTRAN or Matlab languages
 Solutions of linear equations (6 hrs)
Theory, definition and concept type questions
Practical examples, and numerical examples types questions
Write algorithm and computer programs to solve the problems
 Elasticity in solid (2 hrs)
Theory, definition and concept type questions
Practical examples of various conditions of stresses
 Finite element method (FEM) (10 hrs)
Theory, definition and concept type questions
Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation type questions
Analyze beams and simple frames
 Finite difference method (4 hours)
Theory, definition and concept type questions,
Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation type questions, excercises on Hydraulic channel routing
 Method of Characteristics (2 hours)
Theory, definition and concept type questions, Solution of unsteady flow
 Simulation of Ground water flow (4 hours)
Theory, definition and concept type questions , excercises on Seepage under dam and River stage –Water table evaluation
Assignments
 Analyze a 2D dam to find stresses giving water pressure and surcharge
 Analyze a 2D wall panel to find stresses giving vertical loads
 Analyze 2 storey 2 bay frame and draw bending moments and shear force diagrams
 Write source codes to solve SaintVenant equations marks distribution.
References:
 P. Karasudhi, Foundation of Solid Mechanics, Kluwer Acedemic Publishers, 1991.
 O. C. Zienkiewicz, R. L. Taylor, Finite Element for Structural, Vol. 1, 2 & 3, Elsevier, 2000.
 D. V. Huttan, Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis, TATA McGRAWHILL, 2004.
 T. R. Chandrapatla and A. D. Belegundu, Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, PHI, 2000.
 W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, The Art of Scientific Computing, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press.
 W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran, The Art of Scientific Computing, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press.
 Ralph A.Wurbs, Wesley p.James, Water Resources Engineering, PrenticeHall India.
 M. Hanif Chaudhry, Open Channel Flow, PrenticeHall India.
 Ven Te Chow, D.R. Maidment, L.W. Mays, Applied Hydrology, McGrawHill
Evaluation Scheme:
The questions will cover all the chapters in the Syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below.
Chapter 
Hours 
Marks Distribution* 
1 
4 
8 
2 
6 
8 
3 
6 
10 
4 
14 
16 
5 
7 
12 
6 
4 
8 
7 
4 
8 
Total 
45 
80 
*Note: There may be minor deviation in marks distribution.
