Building Technology

Course Objective:
To introduce: Functional requirements of buildings, Factors affecting comfort to the occupant in the building, Elements of building, Construction details of building components, Services in building and Causes & prevention of cracks in buildings.

  1. Functional Requirements of Buildings  (7 hours)
    1. Buildings and their types
    2. Heat phenomena in Building (thermal performance of building components, thermal comfort, thermal design)
    3. Ventilation (requirements, standards, design) & air conditioning
    4. Lighting (illumination requirements, daylight, artificial lighting)
    5. Sound and Acoustics (sound & noise, acoustic defects, sound insulation)
    6. Orientation & planning of buildings (principles, site-selection, economy, setting-out)
    7. Moisture & its movement through building components and damp proofing

  2. Foundations  (5 hours)
    1. Soil exploration (methods, improving bearing capacity, load test)
    2. Foundation and its types (deep, shallow)
    3. Earthwork excavation of foundations (soft soil, hard rock, wet excavation)
    4. Excavation of trenches for pipes, cables etc. and refilling works
    5. Some common problems with existing foundations

  3. Mortars & Masonry works  (4 hours)
    1. Mortars ( Types, properties, preparation process, Estimating mortar requirement)
    2. Brick masonry (types, specifications)
    3. Stone masonry (random rubble, course rubble, ashlar)
    4. Walls: retaining walls, cavity walls, parapet walls

  4. Roofs  (4 hours)
    1. Roofs & their types
    2. Timber roofs (Single/double/ multiple timber roofs)
    3. Steel trusses and their components (Angle & tubular truss)
    4. Roof coverings

  5. Stair, lifts and escalators  (3 hours)
    1. Stair and its Elements
    2. Essential requirements & Types of stair
    3. Ladders, ramps, Lifts & Escalators

  6. Doors and windows  (2 hours)
    1. Doors: frames, shutters and their fixing details
    2. Windows & ventilators: types and their fixing details

  7. Flooring   (3 hours)
    1. Flooring and its types
    2. Special types of floor finishing
    3. Floor and wall ties

  8. Temporary construction  (4 hours)
    1. Scaffolding and its types
    2. Formwork for excavations & trenches and Formworks for RCC construction
    3. Shoring and its types
    4. Underpinning and its procedures
  1. Finishing works  (4 hours)
    1. Cladding  (types, fixing process)
    2. Partitions & Suspended ceilings
    3. Plastering & Pointing (types and process of application)
    4. Painting works in wooden, metal and masonry surfaces

  2. Causes and prevention of cracks in buildings  (2 hours)
    1. Cracks in different components of buildings (walls, roofs, floors, plasters, windows, RCC, joints etc.)
    2. Causes of cracks and Remedial measures to cracks

  3. Earthquake protection & Retrofitting in building  (3 hours)
    1. Earthquake Protection of Buildings
    2. Techniques of Retrofitting  and Retrofitting materials
    3. Destructive and non-destructive tests in buildings

  4. Other services in building  (4 hours)
    1. Water supply & sanitation
    2. Electrification, CCTV and Telephone network
    3. Fire Protection
    4. Rainwater harvesting

Assignments: [10 marks]

  1.  Drawings of site plan, foundation trench plan, section and timbering of foundation trench.
  2. Detailed drawings of foundation structures. Bonding details of junction of walls.
  3. Detailed drawings of important building components (foundation, plinth, and superstructure).
  4. Detailing of frames and shutters of doors and windows;
  5. Drawing plan and section of dog legged stair case.
  6.  Isometric view, plan and sections of scaffolding, shoring and    underpinning.
  7.  Septic tank, soak pit and isometric view of pipe layout.
  8. Layout drawing of power, light circuit and other networks.

Tutorial:  1 hour/week
In tutorial class students will be taught to design a residential/office building and prepare complete working drawings with essential details.
Student will be allowed to prepare a building plan to work out detailed drawings for tutorial exercises.


  1. WB Mckay, ELBS Publication "Building Construction"
  2. Goyal, M. M.,"Handbook of Building Construction: The essential source of standard construction practices", 2004, Thomson Press,
  3. Chudey & Greeno, Butterworth & Heinemann, "Building Construction Handbook", 1998
  4. Reid E.,"Understanding Buildings", , MIT press
  5. Pahari, B., "Passive Building: Concept & Design", 2002, ISBN: 99933-34-24-3
  6. Building code(NS, IS)
  7. S.C.Rangawala, "Building Construction"
  8. Ching, FDK, "Building construction Illustrated"


Evaluation Scheme:
The questions will cover all the chapters of the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below.



Marks distribution*

























*Note: There may be minor deviation in marks distribution.

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