ADJUSTMENT OF OBSERVATIONS
Course objectives:
To impart knowledge on adjustment of survey measurements and develop skills in computer programming.
Course outline:
 Surveying Engineering Methodology (1 hours)
 Processing, estimation, and assessment scheme
 Classes of Mathematical models (4 hours)
 Definition
 Forms of Models
 Direct – Linear, nonlinear, condition model
 IndirectParametricNonlinear, linear
 ImplicitConditions on the observations, Conditions on the unknown parameters
 Combination of Models
 Conditions on the observations
 Conditions on the unknown parameters
 'Step by step' or 'Sequential' methods
 Solution of Models (4 hours)
 Linearization of models:
Univariate function, Bivariate function, Multivariate function
 Differential forms:
Implicit model, Parametric model, Condition model
 Covariance and correlation (3 hours)
 Covariance matrix of the estimated parameters,
 Correlation coefficient matrix of the estimated parameters
 Unique solutiondirect, indirect, implicit model (3 hours)
 Least square methods (12 hours)
 Least Square solution equations
 Implicit model
 Parametric model
 Condition model
 Solution of the least squares problem by the Logrange method
 Least squares formulation of a combination of mathematical models
 Sequential least squares
 Confidence regions (Error ellipse)
 Statistical testing and assessment of result (12 hours)
 Univariate testing
 Multivariate testing
 Accuracy and reliability of Networks (6 hours)
Computer Lab:
 Mathematical models in surveying engineering
 Leveling network adjustment
 Reanalysis of a trilateration network
 Least squares adjustment of a trilateration network using batch, sequential, and summation of normal methods
 Univariate statistical testing
 Univariate and multivariate statistical testing
Reference:
 J. Krakkiwsky and M.A. Abousalem, Adjustment of observations, Class note, University of Calgary.
 Papers for the CISM Adjustment and Analysis Seminars, Canadian Institute of Geomatics 1987.
 The methods of Least Squares by D.E. Wells, E.J. Krakiwsky, UNB Lecture notes 1971
 Surveying Theory and Practice by Raymond E. Devis et al, McGrawHill
Assessment: Average of three
Evaluation Scheme:
The question will cover all the chapters in the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below.
S.N. 
Chapter 
Hours 
Marks allocation* 
1 
2,3 
9 
16 
2 
4,5,6.1,6.2 
9 
16 
3 
6 
9 
16 
4 
7 
12 
16 
5 
1,8 
7 
16 
Total 
45 
80 
*Note: There may be minor deviation in marks distribution
